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Engineers scrutinized the structure and discovered the arched landmark — the inspiration for the jet-set architecture in "The Jetsons" — was at risk for collapse or irreparable damage in an earthquake.
The discovery came not from a government mandate but because the airport's owner, Los Angeles World Airports, a city agency, decided to reevaluate the structural fitness of the half-century-old structure in light of the stucco failure.
The revelation resulted in a $10-million effort to voluntarily seismically retrofit the building. To some earthquake experts and structural engineers, the renovation underscores the need for property owners to focus on seismic retrofitting even when it is not mandated by building codes or government laws.
The story of the Theme Building will take center stage Wednesday at a symposium at UCLA called "Imminent Danger," which will bring in speakers from Caltech, LAX and UCLA to talk about the threat from and economic impact of building collapse in an earthquake.
View entire article here: http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-earthquake-scare-20101201,0,164471.story
by Abu Hanifah
JAKARTA, Nov. 30 (Xinhua) -- The recent eruption of Merapi volcano located in Indonesia's Central Java province has damaged the biodiversity in conservatory forest around the volcano and several tourist destinations located near the volcano.
An official supervising the Merapi forest conservatory said that string of eruptions that had been going on since late October this year has damaged 43 percent of the conserved forest covering 6,410 hectares of area, located in Sleman, Boyolali and Magelang regencies in Central Java.
Total cost from the damage in the Merapi Conservancy Forest is estimated to reach 5.5 trillion rupiah (about 610 million U.S. dollars).
"That estimation was excluding the cost from the damage of 10 hectares of research forest located near the volcano," Tri Prasetyo, head of Merapi Conservatory Forest said.
Due to the damage in the conserved forests, Tri said that villagers around the volcano are facing imminent danger from landslide and flash floods.
"The scorched trees in that damaged area can no longer withhold the soil or massive water from floods. It is actually the secondary impact from a volcano eruption," Tri said in a recent report published by a local media.
He said that efforts to rehabilitate the conserved forest are facing problems with the alert status imposed on the volcano by the authority, saying that it would be very dangerous to carry out the rehabilitation efforts under the volcano's alert status.
Tri furthermore said that it would take 40 to 50 years to see the conserved area back to the condition before the eruption.
"Most 0f the pine trees scorched by the hot clouds were the large ones with 40 to 50 centimeters of diameter. It takes a very long time to grow those trees up to that size," he said.
Besides the huge cost from the damage in conserved forest, the volcano eruption also hampered the tourism business that consists of ancient temples and small resorts.
A potential loss of 17 million rupiah (about 1,800 U.S. dollars) per day was resulted from the volcano eruption that ensued until recently, earlier reports said.
Indonesia reopened the Borobudur temple for public this week after the world's largest Buddhist temple was cleaned from the volcano ashes covering all over its construction.
The authority has reopened airport in Jogjakarta, a town close to the volcano, after it was closed down for weeks due to the volcano's ash that endangers flights from and to the city.
Losses also reported from the damages of hundred hectares of snake fruit plantations ran by the public living around the volcano. Earlier reports said that the losses have reached billion of rupiah.
The eruption of the country's most active volcano has claimed more than 300 lives since its eruption that commenced late October. Most of the victims died from the volcano's hot clouds that invading their villages.
Editor: Fang Yang
|Depth||6.6 km (4.1 miles) (poorly constrained)|
|Region||OFF THE EAST COAST OF THE UNITED STATES|
|Location Uncertainty||horizontal +/- 26.2 km (16.3 miles); depth +/- 36.5 km (22.7 miles)|
|Parameters||Nph= 16, Dmin=204 km, Rmss=0.75 sec, Gp=320°,|
M-type=local magnitude (ML), Version=1
Spelunkers look at a cave and wonder how to explore its deepest reaches. But physicists look at it and wonder how it got there in the first place.
A new mathematical analysis solves a longstanding cave-formation puzzle: how a trickle of water laced with carbonic acid manages to quickly dissolve rock to create massive conduits. The trick, it seems, is that fluid flow focuses rapidly in certain channels, which grow at the expense of others and allow the acid to penetrate deeply.
"Most of the models in cave formation today don't have this mechanism at all," says Piotr Szymczak, a physicist at the University of Warsaw. He and his colleague Anthony Ladd, a chemical engineer at the University of Florida in Gainesville, lay out their new equations in a paper to appear in Earth and Planetary Science Letters.
The work could improve understanding of the safety of dams, waste storage sites, or anywhere else fluid might be seeping through the ground.
For more than a century, researchers have known the basics of how limestone caves form: A tiny fracture opens in the rock, perhaps due to some internal stress, and water begins percolating through it. Most water contains some carbon dioxide, making it a weak acid that can eat away at the calcium carbonate in limestone. The question is how that dissolution can happen fast enough to produce deep penetration and allow long cave systems to form. The longest known system in the world is Mammoth Cave in Kentucky, with at least 580 kilometers of passageways.
Earlier work had suggested that the rate at which rock dissolved could speed up dramatically when the fluid is nearly saturated with carbon dioxide. But the new study can explain cave formation without invoking such a mechanism, says Szymczak.
The researchers showed how the equations describing fluid flow in the rock always contain a mathematical instability. The fact that this instability exists means that very soon after a fracture opens, fluid flow begins to focus along tiny ripples and build some bigger channels at the expense of others. "This mechanism of channeling speeds your dissolution time quite a lot," says Szymczak. "That's what allows it to penetrate so deep."
The mathematical analysis is likely to bring new insight into ideas that have been circulating since the 1990s, when the notion of focused flow in limestone was first proposed, says Harihar Rajaram, a hydrologic engineer at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The new work, says Szymczak, builds on that foundation by showing that the instability always exists in the math, no matter what materials are involved.
The work, he adds, could help explain why caves sometimes form faster than expected beneath dams. The equations might also help improve modeling of how fluid seeps through rocks, a key question raised about the once-planned nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.
The researchers next want to look into what happens when engineers inject liquid carbon dioxide from power plants deep underground, in an attempt to keep the carbon from entering the atmosphere.
Image: This simulation shows how fluid flow (in this case, from left to right) can lead to deep penetration in a rock. At first (panel at left) channels begin developing almost equally, but over time (right) certain channels gain in size at the expense of others. Credit: Piotr Szymczak
ATTENTION MESA MEMBERS...JUST A REMINDER THAT WE WILL MEET TODAY, AFTER SCHOOL... IN ROOM G203...ALL ARE REQUIRED TO ATTEND.
âSENIORS: Class meeting tomorrow at lunch in the Lecture Hall. Be There!!â
Freshmen and sophomores we will have a meeting in A101, Mrs. Bullardâs room at lunch on Wednesday.
Any third period class that is interested in a community service project Senate is sponsoring a gift drive for PB & J family services. Stop by the activities office tomorrow to pick during third to pick up a name. This is done through your 3rd period class so be sure you have the approval of your teacher. Any club wishing to participate please contact Austin Madrid for more information.
Interested in applying to the University of New Mexico? Apply by December 1st and you wonât have to pay the application fee. If you qualify for the Regents or Presidential Scholarship that application is due by December 1st also. DONâT WAIT ANY LONGER!!!!! See Mrs. Futey in room E224 or your counselor if you have any questions or need help applying!
A representative from UNM will be at Volcano Vista on today during lunch between the E and F lunch areas. She is available for general and admission information!
Students if you are taking a course with BYU online and need to complete the course before January 1, 2011, BYU Independent study requests that they finish the course before December 22, 2010. For questions, please see your counselor.
"G'day mates! Some of the Australian students that are coming in January still need families to stay with. If you have an extra bed and would like to share a part of your life with someone new, please come by the band room and pick up an application. This will be a great experience and you will enjoy making new friends."
Seniors donât forget to order you cap and gown at Campus Specialties by December 2nd in order to receive the group discount.
Have you lost your clothes (shirts, jackets, pants, shoes, etc.) come by Activities to claim your belongings in the lost and found. All unclaimed items will be given to charity at the end of the semester.
A substantial amount of money was found a few weeks ago on campus and turned into the office. If that is you stop by the Activities Office and talk with Mrs. Weidner.
Zipped and pullover Hoodies are on sale in the activities office for $15.00. This is a great gift for the holidays.
We continue the Metro tournament in Basketball tonight:
Itâs Great to be a Hawk!